Method A vs. PE type penetrants

I'm looking for articles, POD's or medium level info on the differences of Method A vs. PE type penetrants.  Maybe older Grover Hardy publications, etc.  Most likely around 1986.

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  • Hey Thomas, I think you'll find FPI POD studies in the Liquid Penetrant Testing Handbook from ASNT, Ch. 10 Part 2 ( Older thinking tells us that PE penetrants are more "sensitive" than WW penetrants because of their ability to control emulsification time; meaning that this gives the inspector more control over the removal of penetrant from the surface for the detection of shallow discontinuities. But, there is no definitive study that proves this is true because a WW penetrant will find the same indications as a PE one. The PE penetrant provides an extra process control that can prevent over-washing of shallow discontinuities from a WW penetrant, that's all.